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Joseph Lister

I first heard of Joseph Lister when I was studying ‘A’ level biology, the man who used carbolic acid in surgery. That’s pretty much what I remember, but think about him next time you or someone you know needs to have surgery. Before Lister, there was a terrifyingly high mortality rate.

He became the First Baron Lister, and is known as a pioneer of antiseptic surgery. In the early days of surgery, it was barbers and the like who carried it out, hence, in the UK, surgeons are known as Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms rather than doctor (not so in the United States, they are all called doctor there, but we like our tradition here in the UK).

Lister was a Quaker, and came from a fairly well off home in West Ham, East London. He was a bright lad, and studied languages, maths and natural sciences. He went onto attend University College London, one of the only colleges to accept Quakers at the time (prejudice and –isms are not new!).

He first studied botany and achieved a Bachelor of Arts, and then registered as a medical student. He achieved an honours degree in his Bachelor of Medicine, and went on to become a member of the Royal College of Surgeons. He was 26 years old, which was no mean feat in the nineteenth century.

As an aside, he left the Quakers and joined the Scottish Episcopal Church, after working with James Syme at the University of Edinburgh, and went on to marry Agnes, Syme’s daughter. They spent their honeymoon visiting hospitals in France and Germany… Ok, she went on to work with him in his lab, so I guess he got away with that, but I have to wonder what that marriage was like.

I have to do a quick re-wind here. I said above that in the early days of surgery, they were carried out by barbers. There was no anaesthetic in those days, and the ‘surgeon’ would stroll in wearing his everyday clothes (actually, scrap that, his dirtiest everyday clothes because he knew they’d get covered in blood). There was no ‘scrubbing in.’ In fact, operating theatres were not even restricted to those involved in the surgery, there was a lot of room for spectators. So, nothing about surgery was sterile. And there was a pretty high mortality rate. Wounds became infected with alarming regularity, infection and death followed. The prescribed wisdom at the time was that infection was spread by bad air. There were no hand washing facilities nor any methods for cleaning patients’ wounds. It was common for surgeons to refer to “the good old surgical stink” and enjoyed the blood stains on their aprons. See below:

https://wizzley.com/st-thomas-hospital-and-the-old-operating-theatre-museum/

Lister learned of Louis Pasteur’s work about food spoilage and how it might be dealt with, and proceeded to experiment with one of these – chemical techniques. He started by spraying the surgical instruments, the incisions and the dressings with carbolic acid. He found that swabbing wounds directly with carbolic acid reduced the incidence of gangrene.

There is the well-known case of the seven year old boy whose leg had been run over by a cart, causing a fracture. No plaster casts in those days, but Lister placed lint dipped in carbolic acid on the wound. Four days later, he renewed the lint and was delighted to find there was no infection. Six weeks later, he found the bone had knitted without any infection.

As a result of this, Lister instructed all his surgeons to wash their hands before and after surgery with 5% carbolic acid solution. The instruments were washed in the same solution and the solution was sprayed over the wound in the operating theatre. (There was a slight downside to this – carbolic acid is mildly acidic and can cause chemical burns. It did cause some problems with healing as a result, but still, it was far better than the earlier situation.).

Lister returned to London, where, as well as being elected President of the Clinical Society of London, he developed a means of repairing kneecaps and improved the method used for mastectomy. We have a lot to thank him for.

Lister’s wife died in 1893, after which he retired. He and is wife had worked together for so long, he lost his appetite for his work. He suffered a stroke however, in 1902, two days before his coronation, Edward VII became ill with appendicitis. This was still a dangerous operation in those days. To put it in perspective, I had mine removed when I was six years old, and my scar is about two inches long (and they probably are smaller than that nowadays). My mum had hers removed forty odd years before me and her scar was all the way across her abdomen. Back to Edward VII. The surgeons of the day were between a rock and a hard place: they had to operate or the soon to be crowned king would die. However, the risks of infection were huge. They went to Lister for advice who told them the latest antiseptic surgical techniques. The king later wrote to Lister and said, “I know that if it had not been for you and your work, I wouldn’t be sitting here today.”

He died on 12 February 1912.

Trivia

Listerine mouthwash is named after him.

He has the honour of having the bacterial genus Listeria, one of the little beasties that gives us an upset stomach, named after him (yes, I really do mean honour, we might not think so but medics get excited over these things).

Listerella, a slime mound, was also named after him.

The Lister Hospital in Stevenage, Herts, is named after him.

Two postage stamps were issued in honour of his services to antiseptic surgery in September 1965.

© Susan Shirley 2017

What Would Happen if Jack the Ripper Struck Today?

I went on David Charnick’s excellent The Ripper Enigma for the second time recently.  In this walk, David does not set out to sensationalise the Jack the Ripper murders (the newspapers of the time did enough of that).  What he does is to set the scene of life in that part of Victorian London, and explains why the victims were vulnerable.  It is an excellent tour and I recommend it to anyone who has any interest in social history, or just an interest in history, in fact.  Check out David’s website for more details:

http://charnowalks.co.uk

It is no secret that the police of the day were baffled.  Yes, there were a lot of arrests but all of the suspects were released without charge.  To this day, there are numerous theories abounding, but no-one knows who Jack the Ripper was, nor why s/he stopped so suddenly.  And we probably never will.

All this got me wondering though, what would happen if there were to be another Jack the Ripper phenomenon today.  Would the police fare any better?  Let’s look at the facts.

Definition of a Serial Killer

Or, probably, more correctly, a serial murderer.  According to the FBI, serial killings are not new, and have been documented since the nineteenth century, although they are known to have occurred way before then.  They are estimated to make up only 1% of all murders.  (A not-very comforting thought that we might all want to remember is that most murders are committed by someone the victim knows…)

The FBI defines a serial murderer as someone who kills two or more victims, and the events in which those killings take place are separated by time.  It also says that there may be more than one offender.

Although there is some dispute as to whether there were five, seven or even only four victims, I think we can agree that whoever s/he was, the Ripper was a serial killer, and, in all probability, acted alone.  I say this because, from witness sightings, the victims were only seen with one person, a man.  Not definitive proof, I know, and in those cases, where there was a time lag between the last sighting of the victim and the body being found, who knows what might have happened?  However, on the balance of probability, it is likely to have been only one person.  (I also know that the burden on proof in criminal cases is ‘beyond reasonable doubt’ but since this is not a trial, I’ll go with the lower standard.)

The Ripper’s “Dear Boss” letter

Why do I suggest that the Ripper might have been female?  There are a couple of theories out there that suggest that Jack was actually Jill.  One, that I read about many years ago, was that the killer was an abortionist whose work had gone wrong, so she made it look like murder so that they could stay in business.  Personally, I don’t buy that.  All but one of the Ripper killings took place outside and why would anyone have been performing abortions outside?  Doesn’t make sense to me.

Another theory that David referred to was that the murderer was a woman who couldn’t have children.  Most of the victims were professional prostitutes (as opposed to women who used prostitution as a casual means of supplementing their incomes).  They would not have wanted children.  A woman whose mind had become deranged because she was unable to give birth might have felt that these women deserved to die.  To be honest, I don’t buy this theory either.  Not because it isn’t possible, I just think that’s it unlikely a deranged woman would have been more chaotic in her behaviour.

Forensic Evidence

Whether the Ripper left any DNA is anybody’s guess, but it is irrelevant, since the police in the 1800s did not have the benefit of DNA analysis.  It was used for the first time in the UK in 1986, almost 100 years after the Ripper.  If it were to happen today, the forensics team would check the victim’s body for fibres and hair (although hair is only of use if the root is still attached).  They’d also check for semen and saliva.  These would be useful if the police had a suspect, but they wouldn’t actually help catch the killer, unless the killer was already on the DNA database, in which case, happy days.

Fingerprints were around at the time, but they weren’t used by police until later.  Nowadays, a crime scene would be routinely dusted for prints, but remember, all but one of these murders was committed outside.  It depends on the actual materials from which the areas where the bodies were found, but t might be possible to obtain fingerprints from brick etc.  Not so in the 1880s when techniques were still in their infancy.

The scene would also be check for footprints nowadays, which might be of use, depending on the type of shoe the killer wore – trainers are good for sole prints.  However, the man with whom the victims were seen didn’t look as though he’d have been wearing trainers.

Crime Scene Contamination

If you watch any TV cop shows at all, particularly those made in the UK, you will see that the police and all the forensic staff all wear paper suits over their day clothes.  They cordon off the area as soon as possible.  They do this for the simple reason that they don’t want to contaminate the crime scene.  The mantra in forensic investigation is Locard’s Exchange Principle – “Every contact leaves a trace.”  What this means is that when two objects come into contact with each other, each will take something from the other, or leave something behind.  Thus the paper suits, which are uncontaminated when they are first put in and will prevent fibres, pet hairs, and so on, from being left at the crime scene.

In the case of the Ripper murders, all the crime scenes were contaminated in some way.  In the case of the first murder, when the first people on scene pulled down the skirt of Polly Nichols, they contaminated the scene.  We don’t know how long the bodies were in situ prior to being found – plenty of time for scene contamination from any animals that might have been around.  The point is, even today, this wouldn’t have been a great start for the police investigation.

 

Mitre Square, the scene of one of the Ripper Murders

The FBI now agrees that there is no generic profile for a serial murderer, which makes sense when you think that there is no generic profile of a human being.  However, most serial killers are not social misfits who hide themselves away.  They often have families, jobs and seem, to all intents and purposes, to be just like you and me.  And often overlooked by the police for this reason.

Why did the killings stop?

Something else we will never know, maybe Jack himself was murdered?  The FBI says that some serial killers stop killing before they are caught, and may never be caught.  There are lots of reasons for this, including greater participation in family activities, but also maybe even just moving away.

Investigation

Of course, if these killings took place today, the police would do the usual thing, set up a team, conduct house to house enquiries, and maybe, just maybe, there would have been more people around to have witnessed the crime, and possibly CCTV.  They would learn early on that some of the victims knew each other and they’d do the usual background checks and they would interview everyone who had seen the women on the night in question.  They would have create an e-fit of the suspect and it would be publicised in the press, television and probably social media.  Crimewatch would be a great medium.  They’d rely on someone coming forward with some information.  They might get lucky.  Or they might not.  There are no guarantees.

 

© Susan Shirley 2017

 

http://susanshirley.london/jack-the-ripper/

 

 

 

 

 

Madame de Pompadour

Born Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, Reinette, as she was known to her friends (translated as little queen) was born on 29 December 1721 in Paris, France.  Her mother Madeleine de La Motte and her father Francois Poisson, although it is suspected that he was not her biological father.  Reinette had a brother, Abel-Francois, who later became the Marquis de Marigny.  Her parents were not exactly “haves” nor “have nots.”  I suppose we would have called them Yuppies in the 80’s – they were financial speculators, or at least, her father was.  The class system in France was still very strong in those days, and it was very much a make-it or break-it world for people like her father.

Reinette spent her early life being educated at the Ursuline Convent in Poissy, and returned to Paris when she was aged nine.  Her mother took her to see a fortune teller who told her that Reinette would become the mistress of Louis XV.  Whether that became a self-fulfilling prophecy or not, I can’t say, but Reinette’s mother decided that her daughter was destined for great things and started to ensure that she was prepared for it.  She was taught to sing, dance, paint, play musical instruments and she went on to become an actress.  Sadly, her mother died before she could see her dreams for her daughter come to fruition.

Reinette’s father was forced to flee France in 1725 as a result of claims that he had been involved in a black market scandal and had unpaid debts, an offence punishable by death in those days.

Charles Lenormand de Tournehem became Reinette’s legal guardian, and it was he who paid for her expensive education, an education preparing her to be the wife of a rich man.  Reinette was a quick study, she made friends with the likes of the philosopher and writer Voltaire.  At the age of 19, Jeanne Antoinette married her guardian’s nephew, Charles.  It was a lucrative match at the time, but even better a few months later when Charles was made sole heir, which improved the couple’s financial standing.

Reinette gave birth to two children by her husband – a boy who died at just a year old, and a girl born three years later.  One of the beauties of the day, Jeanne Antoinette became the toast of society and founded her own salon that was frequented by philosophers of the day, including her renowned friend, Voltaire.

As her mother had hoped, the king heard about Jeanne Antoinette.  As chance would have it, one of the king’s mistresses, the Duchess de Chateaurux died unexpectedly, and for a while, the king was broken-hearted.  However, he met Reinette at a masked ball at Versailles.  She made quite an impression on the king and within a month, she had become his mistress, and had moved to an apartment in the Palace of Versailles.  She was a commoner, and in order for her to be presented at court, Reinette had have a title, hence she became the Marquise de Pompadour.  She also obtained a legal separation from her husband.

Reinette with Doctor Who (David Tennant) in “The Girl in The Fireplace” May 2006

It didn’t take long for her to become the king’s chief mistress.  Reinette set about if not becoming the queen’s friend, at least not her enemy, which was unusual.  The king’s previous mistresses had ignored the queen, and she said of Reinette,

“If there must be a mistress, better her than any other.”

Her attitude towards the queen, who was not well-suited to Louis, made life much easier for Louis, no wonder they remained friends for the rest of their lives.  Louis was shy, and not a great communicator.  Reinette became his private secretary almost, and conveyed his instructions to others.

She was only his regular mistress for about five years, even though she remained at court and was still his official mistress until her death.  In fact, it was then that she moved into more lavish apartments at Versailles, and became better established than ever before.  Whether this was due to Louis’ roving eye or Reinette’s desire for self-preservation.  She had two miscarriages while at court and must have known that further pregnancies were putting her life at risk so she arranged for lesser mistresses to replace her in the king’s bed.

Madame de Pompadour also arranged for her brother to be appointed the director of the king’s buildings.  He became Marquis de Marigny.  With his sister, they planned and built the Ecole Militaire and what is now known as La Place de La Concorde (then the Place Louis XV), most of the palace of Compiegne, and more besides.

La Place de La Concorde, with the Eiffel Tower in the background

Reinette had many enemies at court, initially because she was a commoner, but later because of the power she had over Louis.  She became one of his most trusted advisors; including military matters and affairs of state, although these matters were nowhere near as successful as the artistic and architectural ones, quite probably because most of the French politicians and senior army personnel were not particularly talented.  Unfortunately, her protégé, the duc de Choisel, was brought in to deal with the Reversal of Alliances, which had allied France with Austria, and which eventually led to the Seven Years War.  The war was a disaster for France, and led to Madame de Pompadour taking the blame.

Her spirits fell, and she became ill in 1764.  Some say it was TB, others cancer.  The king nursed her throughout her illness until her death.  She was 42.

 

© Susan Shirley 2017

 

Ivy

I suppose I should have realised that there might have been a bit of an issue when I bought the house.  The clue is in the street name after all: Ivyhouse Road.  Oh yes, there was ivy there at the bottom of the garden when I moved in, but not too much. I was able to keep it pretty much under control.  Until a couple of years ago.  That’s when I decided to try to get rid of the ivy in my garden.

I kid you not, it is like a Triffid.  It’s almost as if it sees you cutting it down and thinks, Ok, I’ll get you, I’ll just sprout over here, you won’t beat me.  It embeds itself in brickwork and concrete and clings for dear life.  It overtakes the other plants, blocking the light from them.  Admittedly, it doesn’t help that two of my neighbours don’t do anything to keep their ivy under control, but I still think the ivy is taking it personally, so now, I am a woman on a mission.  And, thanks to my brother and his lovely wife, Alison, making some headway.

Who is Ivy?

 When Alison and I were in the garden this week, we were intrigued by the size of the leaves on some of the ivy, it didn’t look like the normal sort of stuff you see climbing up the sides of buildings.  (By the way, I hate that.  The stuff is full of insects that love to bite me, even in December, and it makes me sneeze.  It even made Alison sneeze.)  I’m no expert but I think it may be that this one is the adult form of ivy, as the adult and juvenile forms of the plants differ.

Ivy leaves

The genus is Hedera, and there are about 15 different species within the genus (I’m a bit vague about it because plants have a habit of mutating and Hedera is a fast growing plant.  Strangely enough, poison ivy is not true ivy, it’s a different genus altogether, Toxicodendron radicans, is native to North America, has leaves that grow in groups of three with a pointed tip and grows clusters of white berries.

The ivy that we see in this country mostly is Hedera helix, also known as common ivy or English ivy.  According to the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew, it is prized for its ability to thrive in the shade.  Hmm, mine seems to thrive in full sunlight…. Apparently, people like it because it covers unsightly walls, and so on, and the berries are loved by blackbirds.  Sorry birdies, I’ll forego seeing you in the garden for a while.  Or you can eat the holly or pyracantha berries instead, I’m sure they taste even better.  Ivy can cause skin irritation and minor allergies, as I know only too well.  As an aside, the Kew Gardens also suggest that it should be “clipped” alternate years to stop it from getting too heavy.

Ivy stems in next doors’ garden

There are other species of ivy that colonise pretty much everywhere in the world from Algeria to the Himalayas.  In fact, the only places they don’t seem to grow are the arctic regions.

How do you get rid of it?

 Not as easily as you might hope.  It’s hard work.  You have to cut and pull.  As in cut the ivy growing on the wall/tree/fence, pulling off the ivy as you go.  The easiest way is to cut in a couple of different places to make it easier for yourself.  When you are trying to get rid of ground cover ivy, you can, apparently, roll it up in sections.

The cleared area, you can see the ivy from next door pushing at my fence

The prescribed wisdom for killing it off seems to be white vinegar (it’s more acidic than malt vinegar.)  Apply it to the roots after you’ve cut down and pulled up as much as you can.  Applying it to the leaves isn’t always successful because the leaves are waxy which makes is harder for it to penetrate.  I’ve liberally applied some salt around the roots too (another good weed-killer, I’ve read, is white vinegar, a handful of salt and a liberal dash of washing up liquid, all mixed in water.  It’s worth a try.)  I added the salt to the root area because it effectively makes the plant die of thirst.  You do remember osmosis from your school days, don’t you?

Theoretically, once you’ve cleared the lower down ivy, the stuff above shoulder height should die off, so I will update you in a few months.  In the meantime, I’m awaiting my delivery of my job lot of vinegar…

 

© Susan Shirley 2016

 

 

Jane Austen

I was watching the film Sense and Sensibility again the other day.  The book behind the film was written by Jane Austen, one of my favourite authors; I’ve read all of her novels.  I’m not normally a lover of the romance, but hers are not just romances, they are far more.  Jane had a wit that few have matched.  She seems to me to have been a bit like the Agatha Christie character Miss Marple; someone who critically observed what was going on around her – much easier without the distractions of mobile ‘phones and computer games.  I suppose we would call it people watching nowadays.  Whatever we call it, she critically observed the society of her day and wrote about.  I like her so much, I attended a lecture about her work back in the summer, and bought a book called The Jane Austen Writer’s Club by Rebecca Smith, one of her great nieces.

The heroines, taken from various films.
The heroines, taken from various films.

Scholars say that she had a natural talent for speech and listening to the way that people spoke, which is evident from reading her work.

           “I have sometimes thought,” said Catherine, doubtingly, “whether ladies do write s much better letters than gentlemen!  That is – I should not think the superiority was always on our side.”

           “As far as I have had opportunity of judging, it appears to me that the usual style of letter-writing among women is faultless, except in three particulars.”

           “And what are they?

           “A general deficiency of subject, a total inattention to stops and a very frequent ignorance of grammar.”

 From Northanger Abbey, by Jane Austen

There is an honesty in the stories that made me wonder how an 18th century spinster could know so much, and I wanted to learn more.

Jane was born on 16 December 1775. She was the youngest of eight children – six brothers and one sister.  Her father was a clergyman.  Jane’s father died when she was aged 30, which meant that she and her sister, Cassandra, moved house several times and struggled a bit financially.  Quite a bit, to be honest.  They basically relied on handouts from the family and whatever they could make in other ways – one being Jane’s writing.  I think there was a touch of autobiography in many of her novels – most of her heroines had a bit of a financial constraint on them.

Jane started to write in her teens, even as a child she’d written plays for the entertainment of her siblings.  She was encouraged to read and this is clearly where her loves of books arose.  Her first novel was Love and Friendship.  It was written as a series of love letters, although in true Austen style, it was something of a parody.  Remember, there were no mobile ‘phones in those days, and people really did send love letters.  Love and Friendship is classed as one of the Juvenilia Stories.

With the help of one of her brother’s, Jane started publishing her work when she was in her 30s.  Hard for us, I know, but we have to remember that it was “not the done thing” for women to have jobs in those days, unless it was something like a governess or companion  – George Eliot, who was born a couple of years after Jane’s death, was the pen name of Mary Ann Evans.

Sense and Sensibility came first, followed by Pride and Prejudice which, I think, was Jane’s favourite.  These were followed by Mansfield Park, Emma, Persuasion and Northanger Abbey.  Sanditon was unfinished when she died.  Some say the same of Lady Susan, also classed by some as one of the Juvenilia Stories, and unfinished, although I have always thought it stood alone, and seems very complete to me.  If you haven’t read it, I recommend it.  It’s another book written as a series of letters, very effective.

Jane became ill in her 40s.  It is widely thought the she suffered from Addison’s disease, a condition in which the adrenal glands don’t make enough of a hormone called cortisol, one of the stress hormones, also used in the regulation of some major bodily functions.  It leaves the body open to other conditions, and, in Jane’s case, there is some evidence that she may actually have had Hodgkin’s lymphoma, perhaps as a result of Addison’s.

I have often thought – and said – that were she to live today, Jane would have been a writer and a coach.  She had a very clear philosophy, evident in her letters (most of those remaining were written to her sister) – whatever you want to do, just get on and do it.  For an 18th century woman, this was very forward thinking.

Why didn’t she marry?

 When I first read her books, I thought that Jane must have been the subject of unrequited love somewhere along the way, and, it seems that was the case.  When she was 20, she met a chap called Tom Lefroy (sounds a bit like a George Clooney character).  It seems they had a bit of a dalliance, but he had no money, nor did she, so that ended as quickly as it began.  Jane had subsequent offers of marriage but refused them all.  I like to think that she was still holding a candle for him.  In fact, she probably was, if she turned down subsequent offers.  She and her sister could have lived far more comfortably had one of them been married.  So now I know how she knew so much!

Whatever your views on her novels, consider this: Jane wrote without a typewriter or laptop.  All her novels were written by hand.

Jane Austen personal quotes

 These are some of my favourite of Jane’s personal quotes, taken from http://www.janeausten.org/jane-austen-quotes.asp

“Wisdom is better than wit, and in the long tune will certainly have the laugh on her side.”

 “Single women have a dreadful propensity for being poor.  Which is one very strong argument in favour of matrimony.”

 “One man’s style must not be the rule of another’s.”

 “Every man is surrounded by a neighbourhood of voluntary spies.”

 “Business, you know, may bring you money, but friendship hardly ever does.”

 “An artist cannot do anything slovenly.”

 

© Susan Shirley 2016

 

 

Hypnotherapy

I first qualified as a hypnotherapist over ten years ago, and re-qualified earlier this year. I am now, officially, a Master hypnotherapist. What is she going on about? I hear you say.

Wikipedia defines hypnotherapy as “an alternative curative healing method that is used to create subconscious change in a patient in the form of new responses, thoughts, attitudes, behaviours or feelings. It is undertaken with a subject in hypnosis.” I suppose a psychiatrist would talk about a patient; I would refer to them as a client.

Before you start thinking that I get people running around barking like dogs, or similar, please understand that it is not possible to get people to do anything under hypnosis that they would do otherwise. Those people that behave like that do so because they want to.  With the exception of George Estabrooks, who, arguably, practised mind control in some circumstances, rather than hypnotherapy.

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I think it’s fair to say that no-one really knows where hypnosis originated – somewhere in India or Ancient Egypt probably. From a Western point of view, we can probably trace it back to the eighteenth century, when Franz Mesmer developed a consistent system with which to hypnotise people. Mesmer was a bit of a showman, and liked to dress up in a cloak, link groups of people together with a rope and play ethereal music. No surprise that hypnosis got a bad a name.

In the nineteenth century, two Scottish surgeons, James Braid and James Esdaile, recognised the benefits of using hypnotherapy prior to surgery and were amongst the first doctors to have hypnosis accepted by their peers. Hypnotherapy didn’t really make it into the mainstream though, at least, not until the First World War. The large number of British soldiers who suffered from what was then called Shell Shock (and would probably have been called PTSD now) required a different approach. A psychiatrist named J A Hadfield developed what he called “hypnoanalysis.” Sadly, it fell from favour at the end of the war in the UK, however, a number of doctors and dentists in the States continued with its use.

The man known as the world’s greatest hypnotherapist was Milton Erickson, an American psychiatrist, was one of these. He specialised in using what are generally known as “persuasive language patterns” to induce trance in his patients. It wasn’t until 1955 that hypnosis was endorsed by the BMA for use in the UK, although now it is possible to find medics who use it alongside more conventional therapies.

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Uses of Hypnotherapy
Hypnotherapy is probably most commonly used for weight loss and to stop smoking, but it can used for pain control, overcoming fears and phobias, stress management, insomnia and overcoming bad habits. It’s been shown to have success in treating a number of other conditions, including:

Cancer-related pain

Indigestion

Tinnitus

Acne, eczema, and psoriasis

Fibromyalgia

Tension headaches

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If you are interested in hypnotherapy treatments, please feel free to contact me.

© Susan Shirley 2016

Cyber Crime

I am involved in a Cyber Security Awareness Conference taking place on 23 March 2017 at CEME Conference Centre, Marsh Way, Havering, RM13 8EU. Of course, cyber crime and security is not my specialist subject, I’m an HR Professional and Coach and there is an HR aspect to the conference. There is another reason (or reasons, to be perfectly correct) that I’m involved in this.

People who know me personally will know that I am very careful about my personal security. And by personal security, I don’t just mean the physical side of things, there is very little you can do when someone rides on a pavement on a scooter and then drags you along the road until they get your handbag. I mean, I don’t advertise my full date of birth on social media, I don’t use the same password on every site I use and I certainly don’t use the password “password.” I like the sites where I can use special characters as well as numbers and capitals. I insist on checking ‘phone numbers and ringing back when banks, etc, ring me, because I won’t give out personal information when I don’t know to whom I’m talking. So no-one was more surprised than me when I had my identity stolen as couple of years ago. I read on the internet that it takes six months and 200 hours of work to sort it out, and that is about right, in my experience. However, I was very, very lucky. I caught it quickly enough, and I didn’t lose any money.

Six months later, one of my credit cards was fraudulently used, even though it was in my handbag at the time. Ten grands worth of fraudulent activity, so the bank told me, but they blocked the transaction and cancelled the card. A minor inconvenience, but far better than the alternative.

So I started to use one card for online transactions and another for physical purchases. That worked well until I got my bill this week. A less ambitious transaction of around six hundred quid on the online card. I have no idea how or where the person or persons concerned got my details. I don’t recall using any dodgy sites. Most of my online shopping is on Amazon or Tesco, with a bit on Debenhams and few shoes sites. (Yes, I still love my shoes.) That one is still under investigation, and I will be more than a bit miffed if I don’t get the money back.

Another thing. This blog site, which, to be honest, doesn’t have many followers, and certainly doesn’t make me any money (which, frankly, begs a question) was subject to a cyber attack a few weeks ago – over 700 attacks in a 12 hour period. I sat at my computer watching the emails come through telling me what was happening and I was terrified. I didn’t know what to do. I set up a rule to put all the emails in one folder and got on with my day and eventually it stopped. Whoever was doing it had a very sophisticated system, the attacks were coming from all over the world. But what I didn’t and don’t get is: What was the point? They didn’t get any money out of it. I’m not famous. And they didn’t get into my site. What was the point?

I may never know that, but what I do know is this:

• Cyber Crime cost each UK resident £210 in 2015 and that figure is set to rise on an annual basis.
• 39% of victims do not report cyber crime (I didn’t report the attack on this site. I had no idea to whom I should have reported it.)
• 93% of cyber attacks on business are directly linked to a lack of staff awareness and training.
• Only 6% of global IT spend is aimed at staff training and development.
• Employees are the main target of cyber crime due to threats from phishing and social engineering.

What should you do?

• Watch this space for more details about the conference on 23 March 2017. I’ll be posting more about it over the coming weeks as details unfold.
• Don’t open email attachments, especially if you don’t know the sender.
• Don’t use free wi-fi in cafés etc, it’s not secure and it can even allow viruses into Macs. (They tell me that they don’t get viruses and I am still not convinced.)
• Change your passwords often.
• If someone sends you an email to tell you that they have changed their bank account, speak to them to verify it. There have been way too many cases of people losing money this way.

© Susan Shirley 2016

Jam

Jam.  Otherwise known as fruit preserve.  I have vivid memories of my childhood, with my Dad growing fruit and vegetables all year round, and my Mum bottling fruit for use in pies at a later date (there were no freezers in those days).  She also used to make jam.  I think black currant was my favourite, maybe strawberry (who doesn’t like a strawberry?) but she also made raspberry sometimes too.  Blackberries, apple and rhubarb were saved for the pies.

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Courtesy of Photobucket

It’s pretty simple to make jam, you chop up the fruit (well, maybe not with blackcurrants and raspberries), pop it into a large pan, add water and sugar and heat it.  After what used to seem like an interminably long time, the jam is ready to go in jars.  Cover with grease proof paper secured by a rubber band, put a label with the type of jam and the date and off you go. Fruit like raspberries and strawberries don’t contain much of the secret ingredient that makes the jam set – pectin – so you have to add that.  The jam doesn’t thicken otherwise.  The science behind fruit preserves is that all that sugar changes the osmotic potential of the substance (ie jam) making it harder for bacteria to grow on it, thus preserving the fruit for longer.

I seem to remember Mum also making marmalade (Mary’s malady, as we were taught in school.  As I recall, we were taught that it was made for Mary, Queen of Scots, when she had a cold).   Maybe someone gave us a load of oranges for her to make it?  Seville oranges, the traditional fruit for marmalade, wouldn’t have been common when we were kids.  Of course, Mum normally bought the marmalade, probably Robinsons, they seemed to make most of the jam etc in those days.  Thin or thick cut; I always liked thick cut myself.  And then they started making it with lemons too.

Courtesy of Photobucket
Courtesy of Photobucket

Then there was lemon curd, which contains beaten eggs, the juice and the zest of the fruit, without the actual fruit.  That was always used for lemon meringue pie.  Usually served with cream or evaporated milk in our house.  There was no interest in the calorific value of the food in those days.  Quite rightly too, for people who had grown up doing physical work and walking miles to and from school every day, which my Mum had to do as a child.  It’s only now that we are more sedentary and have cars and other vehicles in which to transport ourselves that we really need to worry about what we eat.

Courtesy of Photobucket
Courtesy of Photobucket

Mum occasionally used to make chutney too, tomato chutney, I think, although it certainly wasn’t as common as the jam making.  Chutney originated in India, and wasn’t originally intended for storage, so didn’t contain as much sugar as the modern day products.  In fact, if you go to a decent India restaurant, they make the chutneys fresh on a daily basis.

So here are five interesting facts about jam:

  1. The EU has strict rules about the amount of fruit that has to be present in any preserve calling itself jam.
  2. Spanish artist Joan Miro used blackberry jam as an art medium.
  3. Jam probably originated in the Middle East centuries ago.
  4. Jam has about half the calories of butter or margarine.
  5. Pepper jelly is becoming popular in the US.

 

 

© Susan Shirley 2016

 

 

Snape Maltings

I stayed with Kate and Geoff for a few days after my birthday. Kate and I had plans for a few days, and had hoped to go to the coast for one of our days, but the weather was wet and windy, and we thought we’d stay in land. We trotted off to Snape Maltings instead.

At its height, Snape Maltings was one of the largest flat floor malting in the country.  Basically, when the barley was wet, and being allowed to sprout prior to drying, it was spread over the floor of the building, to give it a larger surface area. After 120 years, the maltings closed in 1965. Apparently, it was a very inefficient plant. Well, I suppose if they were still using the same method, it probably would be.

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Soon after closure, a chap called George Gooderham bought the buildings and so began a conversion from an industrial area to shops, concert hall and art galleries.

The river Alde at Snape
The river Alde at Snape

The first thing to be built was the concert hall, then came the craft shop. There were some beautiful pieces in there, many of which were made locally. There are also some lovely clothes shops selling off high street pieces. Yes, I cannot lie, I did buy a hat.

The village of Snape itself has been there in some form or other for about 2000 years, although the original settlement was on higher ground, and moved closer to the river at a later stage. For a little village, it has a lot of history.

The wherry at Snape
The wherry at Snape

The Romans also settled here, whilst on their quest to subdue all the tribes in Britain. There was a priory just outside of the village too, founded by a local landowner named William Martell, before he set off for the Third Crusade. Like other priories, it met its demise in the reign of Henry VIII, however, one of the barns remains.

The Romans used the area for salt production; in the 19th century the area was used for producing fertiliser, which led to the formation of the company Fisons. Sugar Beet was – and still is – produced in the area, and, of course, malting barley happened in the area.

Snape became a tourist area as far back as the 18th century, as a result of the race course, which led to what is now the A1094 being built to make it easier to get to. By the end of the 19th century, Snape was a busy inland port.

The remains of an old rudder at Snape
The remains of an old rudder at Snape

When I visited the Maltings, I wondered why anyone would put a concert hall in this area – a village that is a bit out of the way. Until I learned about the connection with the composer Benjamin Britten.

Britten was born in Lowestoft in Suffolk and went to school in Holt, in Norfolk, before winning a scholarship to the Royal College of Music. Despite travelling to America, Britten didn’t forget his Suffolk roots, and in June 1948, along with singer Peter Pears and producer Eric Crozier, founded the Aldeburgh Festival of Music and Arts. In its early days, there was no venue in the area that was really big enough to do it justice, but, when the concert hall at Snape Maltings was built, voila! The concert hall was burnt down on the first night of the 1969 concert, moving the festival to other areas. It was rebuilt by the following year, and the festival has gone from strength to strength.

There are a couple of little restaurants at Snape Maltings, as well as the other attractions, and various events take place throughout the year, including a farmers’ market on 5 November this year. See the link for further information:

Home

© Susan Shirley 2016

Earl’s Court – The Changing Face of London

I went to meet a friend for lunch the other day, near to the old Earls Court Exhibition Centre.  Oh, my, how it has changed since I used to got to meetings over there, which was only a year ago.  In knew that there was re-development work on the horizon, I didn’t realise that the work had already started.  Walking past a couple of rows of boarded up buildings was quite a shock.

There is a little side road, I’m not sure whether this is Empress Place,  with some charming little cottages, I’m not sure whether this is Empress Place.    At least, they look charming from the outside – I wonder how it must feel to have all that building work going on around you.  Particularly as those premises have been selling to for a shed load of money before all the redevelopment.  Maybe they still do.

The original Earls Court was opened in 1887 and rebuilt in 1937, in the art moderne style.  (A bit more modern than art deco, I think, but I am not an expert in these things.)dscf9754

Earls Court was London’s main exhibition centre for many years.  It hosted the Ideal Home Exhibition (if you didn’t have sore feet and a sore back after that, you’d done something wrong), the Royal Tournament, the Motor Show, Crufts, and, up until 2010, The Brit Awards, to name just a few.  I remember going to many an exhibition or show there in its heyday.

So popular was it that Earls Court Two was built and opened 1991.  However, over the intervening years, other venues were built, and in some cases closed: Docklands Arena, the O2.  The Olympia Exhibition Centre was opened the year before Earls Court, and although not quite such a convenient location, it’s still going strong.  The whole area around the Earls Court Exhibition Centres was scheduled for demolition in 2013 to make room for more – and presumably more lucrative – residential properties.  Which brings us to where we are now.

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Unsurprisingly, the whole area was once a green field area, part of the manor of Kensington, and for years owned by the Earls of Oxford (hence the name Earls Court).  When the railways came to the area, in the 1860s, development started.

At the end of the Second World War, many Polish immigrants settled in the Earls Court area.  In the 1960s, Australians and New Zealander’s who came to the UK on their travels tended to settle in this area – it was one of the cheapest areas in Central London.  That’s changed too.

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North End Road is still a bit more “local” looking, with the pound shops, and local pubs, although for how long is anybody’s guess; a number of council tenants are being rehoused as a result of the redevelopment.

I suppose it’s all inevitable.  Nothing and nowhere stays the same.  I wonder what I’ll be writing about this area in ten years from now?

 

 

© Susan Shirley 2016